Heat, Energy, and Thermodynamics

Many essential applications of chemistry depend on the transfer of heat and energy accompanying physical and chemical changes. The principles of thermodynamics help us explain and predict why these changes take place.


Temperature and Heat

The difference between temperature and heat is a key concept in thermochemistry, and a key conceptual hurdle for students.

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Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

Some reactions require heat in order to proceed, while others release heat. Compare and contrast the heat changes that take place during physical and chemical changes.

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Calorimetry

Measure the temperature difference and determine the amount of heat transfer in a reaction using calorimetry. Understand calorimetry, and you “own” the concepts of heat, energy, and thermodynamics!

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Conservation of Energy

Conservation of energy is a fundamental law because it fundamentally describes what we observe and measure in nature!

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Energy in Combustion Reactions

Combustion reactions provide the energy for all aspects of our daily lives, from heating our homes to driving our cars. What can you do with all that energy?

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Enthalpy, Entropy & Free Energy

Enthalpy, entropy, and free energy help you explain and predict why chemical reactions or physical processes occur. They are the “driving forces” in chemistry!

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