Solids and Liquids

The properties of solids and liquids give us a mirror to see inside the world of atoms and molecules—to understand the motion of molecules and compare the interactions among them.


Properties of Solids

Investigate the physical properties of common solids and explore how chemical bonding and intermolecular forces shape those properties.

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Structures of Solids

It’s easy to appreciate the crystalline beauty of minerals and gems. You can appreciate their chemistry by visualizing their structures and explaining their properties.

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Phase Changes and Phase Diagrams

Phase diagrams are actually maps of the states of matter as a function of temperature and pressure. Learn to read the maps by exploring the fascinating territory of phase changes!

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Properties of Liquids

Molecules in the liquid state are in constant motion, but they are close enough together that attractive forces between molecules influence their motion.

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Mixing Liquids - Volume Is Not Conserved

A conceptual awareness of the particle nature of matter is needed to understand chemistry. How close together are the particles in a liquid?

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Vapor Pressure of Liquids

Dynamic balance between rates of evaporation of a liquid and subsequent condensation of the vapor leads to an equilibrium vapor pressure. It depends on temperature!

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Evaporation and Boiling

Investigate the energy changes accompanying phase transitions from a liquid to a gas and relate the changes to the kinetic energy of molecules and their interactions.

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